Terms of Reference(ToR)
Political Economy Analysis(PEA) of the West Omo Zone Ethiopia and Kenya Boarder
Pact is a leader in developing systemic solutions to development challenges. An international development organization founded in 1971, Pact serves communities challenged by poverty and marginalization because we envision a world where everyone owns their future. For almost five decades globally and more than two decades in Ethiopia, our integrated approach has addressed the root causes of poverty and marginalization. Pact’s work in Ethiopia and the Horn of Africa impacts thousands of Ethiopians with the goal of developing a better future for themselves and their nation. Pact is empowering communities, organizations, and the government in Ethiopia to build peace, prosperity, and an enabling environment for sustainable development, despite the country’s longstanding struggles with poverty and conflict. With our unique integrated approach to programming, our efforts strengthen individuals, families, communities, local economies, institutions, and organizations-impacts that will benefit Ethiopia for generations to come.
For decades, the people of the border regions of Africa have grappled with violent conflict, climate shocks and marginalization. As a result, these communities find themselves in acute poverty with little to no prospects and a widespread sense of exclusion that can lead to displacement, discontent, and radicalization Violent conflicts in the border areas between Ethiopia and Kenya are shaped by the realities that define subsistence rural livelihoods. For example, climate change has led to rising temperatures and higher frequency and intensity of droughts that have changed the vegetation in the rangelands, forcing pastoralists to move further to find food and water for cattle. In addition, conflicts over land rights and access occur between private businesses, local governments, and different ethnic groups. In all cases, violent conflict erodes the positive social capital that holds communities together and pushes vulnerable and already marginalized people to migrate to locations they believe can allow them to attain secure livelihoods and alternative options for a stable, prosperous life. West Omo area is located at Ethiopia’s southern margin, where Maji and Surma woredas under West Omo Zone are bordering Kenya, encompassing the area to the west of the Omo River. The area is dominantly inhabited by the Dizi, Suri and Me’enit communities. The Suri community in Surma woreda are agro-pastoralist while the community in Maji woreda (Dizi and other ethnic communities) are predominantly agriculturalist”. The Nyangatom and Toposa are encroaching into the Maji area in search of pasture and water from their borders with Surma Wereda. The Lower Omo and Turkana region across the Kenyan-Ethiopian border is home to several communal groups such asthe Mursi, Nyangatom, Dasanach and Turkana and have long been hotbeds of climate-induced, resource-based local conflicts.
These communities have adopted a nomadic agro-pastoralist way of life in response to a harsh climate and erratic weather patterns. These groups share a conflictual past, marked by intermittent but repeated fighting over essential grazing resources. Funded by the European Union Trust Fund for Africa, the Selam Ekisil (SEEK) project adopts a conflict systems-based approach to address the multiple causes of conflict in cross border areas and to promote peace building, conflict management, and conflict resolution capacity at the community and cross border levels. It is part of the EU’s programme for Collaboration in the Cross Border areas of the Horn of Africa, providing over 60 million euros of investment to prevent and mitigate the impact of local conflict and to promote economic development and greater resilience in four different cross border regions.
Ultimately, the prevalence and severity of conflict are shaped by the effectiveness of informal and formal institutional structures and forces that manage differences between groups. The 30-month SEEK II project will address drivers of conflict, insecurity, and instability, while strengthening the systems and institutions that peacefully manage and resolve conflicts on the border of West Omo Zone, Ethiopia and Turkana County, Kenya.
It is against this backdrop that Pact will carry out a broad Political Economy Analysis (PEA) of the peace architecture across the cross-border area in West Omo Zone to inform overall Action direction and serve as the basis of overall activity design. The PEA will be structured to elucidate power dynamics, values and ideas that shape actors’ behaviors, and the relationships, interests and incentives. It will consider how actors interact with each other as a whole system and will consider relationships between different layers of peace structures. The PEA also will incorporate conflict analysis to capture and map local drivers of conflict and to provide an overview of the status of early warning and early response (EWER) and other peace architectures.
Scope of Work
This TOR is to deliver a PEA in West Omo-Turkana cluster and to provide an understanding of the conflict dynamics and conditions for the Government, civil society and other conflict management actors to improve performance in conflict management.
The assignment consists of the following aspects:
- Develop an appropriate PEA methodology through a participatory workshop with Pact and the West Omo key stakeholders. The methodology and exact questions to be answered by the PEA will develop over the course of the workshop and as the consultant analyses initial findings. The consultant will be prepared to identify and explore emerging political economy questions as the research is carried out.
- Demonstrate and support the development of the teams to interview and collect data through an experiential learning process that develops their skills and guides the data collectors to undertake field work to inform the final analysis.
- Collate and analyse the findings
- Write up the report
Skills and Expertise Required
- 5 (Plus) years of experience working in research and analysis in horn of Africa, and knowledge of the region’s/country’s culture and social norms;
- Demonstrated knowledge of the functioning of public sector institutional structures and experience mapping organizational behavior and incentives
- 5 (Plus) year’s expertise of applied political economy analysis (or similar qualitative methods) and the use of various methodologies, as well as the application of analysis to develop recommendations for development programming;
- Expertise in the functioning of informal networks and drivers of decision-making.
- Proven ability to tap into informal networks, obtain information, triangulate it, assess its reliability;
- Work in the humanitarian sector is an added advantage.
- High-level English communication and writing skills
- Demonstrated experiences and skills in facilitating stakeholder consultations
- Demonstrated knowledge and experience in undertaking Applied Political Economic Analysis (APEA) and/or qualitative research
Criteria for Selection of the Best Offer
The consultant will be selected based on Combined Scoring method – where the qualifications and methodology are given 70% weightage and financial offer will be given 30% weightage. Only consultant meeting a minimum of 50 points under technical evaluation would be considered for the financial evaluation.
While submitting the Technical Proposal, the Applicant shall ensure to attach the following:
a) Profile of the consultant (max 1 page) explaining why they are the most suitable for the work
b) Recent Curriculum Vitea of the consultant including team members
c) Testimonies of similar assignment
d) Detailed methodology and conceptual framework with expected deliverables and timelines, man days required (3-5 pages as per the presentation outline attached to the TOR)
How to submit the Proposal
a) Interested eligible bidders can collect the Tor from our reception desk and may submit their proposal in a sealed envelope containing two additional sealed envelopes inside – one technical proposal and one financial proposal.
b) LANGUAGE OF BID: The bid, as well as all correspondence and documents relating to the bid shall be written in English language.
c) CURRENCIES OF BID: All financial quotes should be in Ethiopian Birr only.
d) PERIOD OF BIDS VALIDITY: Bids shall remain valid for the period of 10 days after the date of bid submission.
e) The bidder is expected to submit the proposal in hard copies
f) The bidder shall enclose the original of the bid in sealed envelopes.
The envelopes containing the bids must: (a) bear the name and address of the Bidder; (b) be addressed to pact at the address given below: Pact Ethiopia Office Address: Bole Sub City, Haya-Hulet area, Woreda 4, house No. 533, behind Capital Hotel. For further information please reach Mahlet Fisseha using Telephone 011-66165- 72/616722/616244/616374
g) Companies must include the following documents with their financial proposal: a) VAT Registration, b) copy of TIN, c) Renewed Licenses. This does not apply for individuals.
h) The deadline for submitting questions regarding the ToR is Tuesday, January 18th, 2021.
i) DEADLINE FOR SUBMISSION OF BIDS: Bids must be received by Pact at the address specified above no later than January 23rd, 2021.