Ethiopian Industrial Parks Development Corporation (IPDC)
Terms of Reference
Assessment on Opportunities for Youth Employment (OYE) on selected four partnerships under 2SCALE ETHIOPIA program
1. Background on the 2SCALE program
The 2SCALE program 2019-23 builds on achievements and lessons learnt from a first phase (2012-18, www.2scale.org). It aims to be a flagship program for the Netherlands’ food security policy and one of the leading catalysts of inclusive agribusiness in sub-Saharan Africa.
2SCALE is designed to incubate and accelerate inclusive agribusiness development in target countries in Africa (Burkina Faso, Côte d’Ivoire, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Mali, Niger and Nigeria). Public-private partnerships (PPPs) are the core implementation modality to achieve the objectives of the program. 2SCALE’s strategy is three-pronged:
- Incubating inclusive business: through PPPs, 2SCALE works together with private enterprises to develop agribusiness models that promote inclusiveness, develop (new) competitive edge, and have potential for scaling. PPPs support value chain development and agribusiness cluster formation. Local networks, also called agribusiness clusters (ABCs), are instrumental to the 2SCALE program to ensure better access to services, and to strengthen innovative and bargaining capacities of smallholder farmers. 2SCALE partners with African and multinational agri-food companies as drivers to increase productivity and to improve efficiency and sustainability of supported ABCs and value chains. Specific attention is given to youth and women to integrate value chains (as farmers, laborers, entrepreneurs, service providers), and to low income / “base of the pyramid” (BoP) consumers that represent the largest market for food products in sub-Saharan Africa.
- Replicating inclusive business: through PPPs, 2SCALE supports the replication of most successful business models, in different settings (regions, industries), with the same or different private partners.
- Facilitating sector transformation and policy alignment: 2SCALE also supports partnering enterprises to drive sector transformation and policy alignment for critical bottlenecks that cannot be solved by the actors within the focus PPPs, and which affects a number of actors in the sector simultaneously.
2SCALE is funded by the Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and implemented by a consortium led by the International Fertilizer Development Center (IFDC) and comprising the Base-of-the-Pyramid Innovation Center (BoPInc) and the Netherlands Development Organization (SNV). The Partnerships Resource Center (PrC) supports the consortium as a strategic and knowledge partner.
2SCALE aims to be a flagship program for the Netherlands’ food security policy and one of the leading catalysts of inclusive agribusiness in Africa. Overall, the program:
- Promote competitiveness of and inclusive and sustainable growth in the agricultural and food sector in Africa.
- Reduce existing hunger and malnutrition and improve access to nutritious food for Base-of-the-Pyramid consumers.
- Create productive and sustainable food systems by strengthening smallholder farmers’ capacity in eco-efficient production.
- Empower young entrepreneurs and businesswomen in private sector development, local and regional sourcing, processing, marketing, and trade, and in creating jobs.
2. 2SCALE’s approach for Youth employment
Youth unemployment and underemployment (“vulnerable employment”) in rapidly growing populations with huge numbers of young people (15-35 years) are recognized as immensely problematic, both economically as well as from the perspective of social stability. African governments are prioritizing the development of policies and programs with regard to youth employment.
OYE (Opportunities for Youth Employemnt) is a model to be applied within 2SCALE in regards to these broader policy frameworks. As such, the proposed market scans as well as the full project proposal to be developed making use of the outcomes of this market scans intend to design effective actions under the Tsehay cooking oil, East African Tiger Brand Industries, Astu Enjera and Bench Maji partnerships with 2SCALE. For details of the four partnerships please visit https://www.2scale.org/en/partnerships/ethiopia-en The market scan shall be inspired/oriented by the push-match-pull model that includes market identification, employability skills, gender equality, access to finance and inclusive governance (innovative ecosystem development and policy dialogue) as key components
3. Rationale for the assignment
The market scans will be developed for four prioritized PPPs in Ethiopia. It will be aiming at identifying linkages with government, training providers, markets and individual private sector companies for youth (self-)employment under the partnerships.
Moreover, the study/scan will take into account the longer term strategic interests of 2SCALE with regard to developing insight in what works for youth support services’ ecosystems and policies regarding the promotion of youth employment.
This strategic approach is based on the OYE model, including enhanced employability and enhanced entrepreneurship and self-employment, and extended to enhancing innovation of youth support services ecosystems, and contributing to conducive policies. Gender equality is an overriding principle in all envisaged interventions.
This OYE model essentially is situated in selected sector/market environments, where opportunity identification for (self-) employment is the point of departure for a comprehensive and practical pathway of “push” (skills development), “match” (connecting youth with employability skills to markets/private sector) and “pull” (establishing (self-) employment in concrete market contexts).
The market scans will help to identify the economic status and ambitions of targeted youth (rural and urban), specific opportunities, partners and resources (including ongoing initiatives that could be highly complementary) and specific gaps with regard to youth support systems and policies that need to be addressed in Ethiopia, also looking at the importance of gender specific barriers and gender equality.
The following are the main objectives of the assignment:
- Contextualization of the OYE model at country level
- By taking the PPPs as an entry point, identifying and selection of sub-sectors, markets, stakeholders in specific geographic areas that will inform the implementation framework of the partnerships. These include:
The specific objectives are to:
- Assess market potential in the PPPs and geographic areas, growth, absorption of number of youths in (self-) employment and youth-led enterprise development
- Undertake Youth profiling (per gender; urban-rural youth): youth aspirations and ambitions in relation to concrete economic opportunities
- Assess youth challenges/barriers: what is preventing youth to access these opportunities (skills, resources, market linkages, knowledge)?
- Determine target group and key features. What do these youth lack in terms of skills, knowledge, access to finance and market linkages, compared to their ambitions and compared to the market needs?
- Identify gender specific barriers and design opportunities for gender equality
- Identify what the youth require to access the identified market opportunities
- Analyse how OYE will handle/manage the linkages between “markets” and youth? Required pathway (i.e. OYE interventions) in terms of key skills (market-needs), finance and enterprise development
- Assess national and regional youth employment policies, and ways in which the partnerships can contribute to improved policy implementation and reforms.
5. Approach and Methodology
The assessment will comprise of desk review, quantitative and qualitative research that explore the following areas:
a) Undertake a literature review including:
- Statistics around youth unemployment at regional, national, provincial level (with a specific focus on the selected four partnerships)
- Assessment of key constraints regarding youth employment policy effectiveness and implementation at regional and national level
- Mapping of relevant initiatives by government, donors, NGOs in relation to youth employment (including regional dimension)
- Mapping of vocational skills training providers and their methodologies
- Identifying (potential) partners in financial and digital inclusion
- Pre-selection of sub sectors/markets and geographic areas in relation to the selected PPPs.
The desk review will be spearheaded by the consultant, where necessary complemented by strategic institutions, together with the 2SCALE country team.
Note that all the desk review will zoom in to the 4 selected partnerships.
b) Field research in the selected PPPs level:
- Conduct mapping of opportunities for (self-) employment, including skills’ demands of large businesses in the selected agriculture and other rural/urban sectors (tool: Labour Needs Assessment)
- Identify and profile key stakeholders for interventions (within the PPPs) , including local government, private sector, local service providers (implementing partners in youth training, coaching, and mentoring) selected sectors/markets (tool: Key Informant Interviews)
- Qualitative youth baseline/profile (rural and peri-urban) – identify “disadvantaged” youth; aspirations, ambitions, challenges around access to services, land, and finance (tool: Focus Group Discussions)
- Conduct mapping of existing business incubation hubs for young people, including financial services providers (tool: Key Informant Interviews)
6. Data collection procedures
Focus group Discussion-FGD: This study will use moderators, note takers, and transcribers to collect the data, take notes, and translate the data. Interviews will be conducted by facilitators, who will be knowledgeable in conducting qualitative formative research. The data collection team will have competence in conducting qualitative research and their competence in the language of the location where the data collection will be conducted. Where necessary, translators will be engaged.
Screening Forms: A screening protocol will be used to guide the recruitment of suitable participants. In this form, demographic information will be recorded by the interviewer for each participant prior to commencing the interviews. The information collected will include organizations represented, position of participant, organizations geographical reach and as such information from participants.
Consent and Interview Procedures: A written consent/assent processes shall be used. To ensure the confidentiality of participants, all signed consent/assent forms need to be kept separate from the data.
Facilitation: Each focus group shall be conducted by two moderators. All interview deliberations need to be recorded. The moderator will lead the interview and ensure that all topics in the interview guide are covered. All study instruments will be translated into the suitable local languages. The interviews will be conducted in the interviewee’s language of preference.
Transcription and Translation: The study team shall be composed of one locally recruited research assistant from each sampled district to easy language barriers that may be encountered by experienced qualitative study experts that will travel to the field and lead the interviews. All interviews will be transcribed verbatim, in the language of the respondents. The transcription of data and data collection shall be conducted simultaneously. Digital recorders need be used to record the data and, after the interview, the audio data shall be sent to the transcribers for transcription.
Transcribed texts have to be translated into English by experienced and trained bilingual consultant (preferably the moderators and transcribers). All translated texts shall be complete and not be summaries of the transcribed original language text. All translations will keep the intent of the original statement, while writing in correct English. The translator(s) will ensure that the translations are consistent across all text.
Data Analysis: Qualitative data will be analyzed deductively; utilizing study questions to group the data and then look for similarities and differences, all data will be coded and analyzed to identify emerging themes based on the study objectives.
Quality control procedures shall include:
- Adequate training of field staff to ensure they are knowledgeable on the administration of the questionnaire and research ethics.
- The pretesting of all tools and guides prior to their use in the field.
- Attention to proper handling and protection of the data and consent forms, as well as appropriate management of the participants.
- Utilization of recorders to ensure that the captured information is verified.
- Observation of interviews conducted by experts.
Ethical Considerations: This study has to adhere to strict ethical standards of voluntary participation, informed consent, nonmaleficence, respect for anonymity and confidentiality.
7. Scope of the assignment
The following four key points are the major demarcations of the study whereby the consulant is expected to brief and revolve around the key research questions already specified and beyond.
Note that all the key question should be zoomed in to the partnerships conditions.
7.1 Employment, employability skills and the labour market demand
7.2 Access to markets including financial services and digital inclusion
Key research questions
- What skills for (self-) employment and entrepreneurships are in demand in selected markets and private sector companies?
- What drives youth to become entrepreneurial?
- What are the skill levels of targeted youth (note: we aim at targeting less privileged youth, as they constitute the majority of the youth, and often remain underserviced, as they do not have access to formal vocational skills training). Skills levels must be analysed in relation to youth’s ambitions in connection to market opportunities i.e. skills demanded by these markets.
- Identification of providers of (practical) vocational employability (life, business, technical) skills.
Key research questions
- Identify growth markets in agriculture and other relevant rural and urban sectors, identify opportunities for (self-) employment. Develop contours of partnerships with private sector companies.
- Identify key issues that cause a gap/distance between market opportunities and disadvantaged youth (besides employability skills tackled in the previous section).
- Identify existing financial institutions, services/products. Develop contours of partnerships with financial service providers.
- Assess youth interest in and access to Saving and Lending and other alternative ways of promoting access to finance as well as ICT solutions.
- Identify ICT service providers in the market/employability spaces.
7.3 Partnerships to be explored
7.4 Partnership specific features of youth engagement or employment should clearly be stated and well defined.
July 25, 2020
A report containing research questions, Methods for data collection and justification, Sampling strategy, Implementation work plan and timetable and Final report outline)
Word file & summarized ppt
Sept 30th, 2020
Revise the report based on the comment
Validation workshop (one per Partnership) of the key finding presentation for major actors within the
ppt & word file
Gather all relevant comments.
All the logistic cost will be covered by 2SCALE directly
Dec 15th, 2020
All comments from 2SCALE team and during the validation workshops properly incorporated.
9. Team composition
It is for the consultants to propose the team composition including support personnel, which they feel best meets the requirements of this Terms of Reference. The team composition should balance local and international skills and include strong English language skills and at least one local language.
The team should be a composition of individuals with (CVs of all the members should be attached to the bid document) practical and theoretical experiences. The team leader should possess
- Advanced university degree (at least Master’s degree) in economics, statistics, development studies, social science, or related field
- Thorough experience (a minimum of 10 years of research experience and familiarity/good knowledge of working with youth or on advocacy of youth/gender)
For other key technical personnel for the assignment, the consulting team is expected to suggest the relevant
10. Roles and responsibilities
The selected consultant will closely work with the 2SCALE team in Ethiopia during the time of the study. The 2SCALE team will follow the progress and can provide relevant information as required. All contacts with the four champions leading the selected partnerships should be well aligned with 2SCALE.
11. Payment frequency
This assignment payment will be made in three instalments.
- First payment, 30% of the total agreed amount after submission of the final inception report
- Second instalment, 30% of the agreed amount, upon submission of reports after comments from 2SCALE are properly incorporated
- Final instalment of 40%, when all comments provided during the validation workshop are properly incorporated.
- Technical Proposal
- Team composition and CVs
- Price offer for the task (should clearly indicate the cost breakdown for all work to be done. Please note that the budget breakdown should be detailed)
Submission procedures: As we strictly follow the COVID 19 mitigation measures, we encourage online engagement with service providers as opposed to direct interactions thus all documents must be shared with the below email addresses by considering the following:
- CVs and Technical proposals (word files)
- Scanned copy of price offers stamped and signed
- Deadline for submission: June 22nd 2020, up to Mid-day, 12:00AM
Address for submission
- Email address for bid document submission: firstname.lastname@example.org.
- Kindly indicate on the subject line “Bid submission for OYE market scan”
- For technical enquires you can reach us through: email@example.com